Educational reforms refer to the process of changing goals of global education by introducing technology, methodologies and strategies. Educational institutions across the world are increasingly getting under pressure to have a system in place that will improve the skills, achievements and students’ participation. For the last three decades, the reforms in education have been effectively emphasizing on the inputs at one end while outputs on the other. These reforms have encouraged public education and as a result the input-output system is strengthened considerably. The implementation of school-wide reforms has also caused further systemic changes in the strategies to enhance effectiveness and performance of the students.
The implementation of reform policies in education has been successful in restructuring the system to increase school autonomy, accountability and innovation in teaching methodologies. However, different countries have different reform policies as to how they are structured, financed and centralized.
Why is the need of reforms in education?
The researchers and educational professionals have identified the following obstacles and inadequacies that have led to the need to implement the educational reform policies:
- There is a reluctance and unfavorable attitude on the part of school stakeholders to adopt bottom-up approach.
- A clear lack of understanding is being seen in authorities as well as in stakeholders for the change in attitudes expected from them
- Lack of time on the part of teachers and parents to implement new strategies
- The allocation and distribution of resources has been inadequate and ineffective so far
- There is no coherence in the continuity on the provision of professional development
- No efforts at all to build and increase school capacity to implement reforms
- No knowledge of roles and responsibilities among stakeholders
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Special needs education is an educational program that is utilized to address the educational needs of those students who are facing challenges with learning, challenges with communication, emotional and behavioral disorders, physical disabilities and developmental disorders. There are various specialized teaching techniques used for these students. The UK government, for the past few decades, has been introducing different provisions to meet the needs of such students. They are required to make sure that more and more special students are entered in the school premises, devise their curriculum, policies for their homework and school trips and most important of all they are needed to ensure that such students are not discriminated against, come what may. The Equality Act 2010 has been enforced to take care of that.
Methods of inclusion
The schools on United Kingdom are allowed to use a variety of approaches to provide special education services. Some of the basic methods are listed here:
- Inclusion: this approach allows the students with special needs to spend some time with those students who do not have special needs because this practice promotes inclusion which is very necessary element for learning. In between the specialized services given to these students such as more intensive instructional sessions, they are made to interact with the other students.
- Mainstreaming: mainstreaming refers to the proper assimilation of special students with other students as far as educational methodologies are concerned. They are allowed to be aware of each other’s skills.
- Segregation: in this approach the students with special needs are taught in separate classrooms or special schools. They do not spend time with the students who are non-disabled.
- Exclusion: in this approach, most of the students with special needs are excluded from the schools. These students are then given one-on-one instruction.
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Entrepreneurship is the process with which people utilize their creativity and constructive opportunities to come up with new ideas for establishing businesses. Entrepreneurs are the professionals who are instrumental in creating employment opportunities in an economy. There are a number of economies around the world where the gulf between population and employment is getting wider and wider. So these entrepreneurs can provide an effective solution to bridge this ever widening gap. Entrepreneurship also allows an opportunity to deal with the uncertainties and risks coming into an economy. The management of workforce and the tapping of human potential are integral components of entrepreneurship. In an economy there is an inherent distinction between self-employment and wage-employment and entrepreneurship represents this occupational choice.
The basic drive for a person to become an entrepreneur is the prior calculation of profits and other non-financial gains that are not seen in the case of wage-employment. So if taken a comparative look, there are additional benefits and compensation as well as risks associated with entrepreneurship. The assignment writing help experts in UK have time again illustrated this topic elaborately.
The employment opportunities created in the market by the entrepreneurship also escalates a good competition in the market. The different players in the market start using advanced technologies to remain efficient and productive because of the competition. Eventually all of these business activities take an economy on the path of growth and development. It all starts with an idea and all the responsible persons use their innovative approach around this idea. Gradually, the idea and innovation starts making profits for the company and hence are beneficial for the economy as well. Entrepreneurship also give rise to research and development that is one of the main pillars widely used in strengthening an economy.
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