Molecular genetics is an important field of Biology which focuses on the study of function and structure of genes at the molecular level. It employs techniques of both Genetics and Molecular Biology. It is mainly linked with gene expression and chromosomes of an organism with the aim of providing insights into genetic variation, heredity, and mutations. Molecular Genetics is an important field of developmental biology study which is highly significant in understanding several genetic diseases and in providing suitable techniques of treating such diseases. Molecular Genetics mainly deals with the activity and structure of genetic material at a molecular level.
The data which have been accumulated by several scientists of the initial stage of the 20th century has brought us several compelling pieces of evidence debiting the fact that chromosomes are the fundamental carriers of genes. But we can see that the nature of genes is not at all investigated upon intricately as we do not have any particular or specific evidence-based understanding of the nature of genes. It is also an important aspect to understand that the mechanism by which genes exert their impact and influence have also not been prominent to the expected level. Basically, we can see that Molecular Genetics is a particular field of biology which focuses only on the function and structure of genes at a molecular level. The structure and function of genes have been the two most important aspect of concern to the scientists and biologists.
The analysis of genes could have provided with several other aspects which could help in understanding the mysterious nature of the genes. As we have all heard about the word DNA, which is an agent of heredity. In the year 1869, Johann Friedrich Miescher who has been a Swiss chemist extracted a particular substance which had phosphorus and nitrogen from nuclei cell. The substance has been originally known as nuclein but now it is termed as deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA.
DNA can be defined as the chemical composition of chromosomes which is mainly responsible for the staining properties present in microscopic preparations. The chromosomes of eukaryotes have a wide range of proteins along with DNA. Now, it is very important to understand whether the proteins or the nucleic acids or both have been the carriers of genes or genetic information or not. During the 1950s, the majority of the biologics have been convinced that proteins are the major carriers of heredity. There are only four unitary building blocks in nucleic acids. On the other hand, proteins are composed of 20 amino acids of different types.
Therefore, we can see that proteins have appeared in a diverse structure which in turn has increased the diversity of the genes. DNA basically plays the role of carrying genetic information. This fact has been portrayed by some simple microbiological studies in an exquisite manner. In the year, 1928, Frederick Griffithwho was an English bacteriologist have been studying two strains of bacterium Streptococcus pneumonia. One of the strains was virulent or lethal to mice and the other one was anti-virulent and or harmless. He found that the mice had been inoculated because of living avirulent bacteria or heat-killed virulent bacteria.
But in reality, the mice had been inoculated because of a mixture of both of the bacteria and the mice got infected and finally died. This incident has clearly indicated that some chemical transforming principle had been transformed into avirulent cells from dead virulent cells. This transforming principle had changed them.
In the year 1944, Oswald T. Avery who was an American bacteriologist along with his co-workers observed that the major transforming factor was nothing but DNA. Avery along with his entire research team gathered mixtures from the heat-killed virulent bacteria. They have inactivated polysaccharides or sugar subunits or, proteins, lipids, DNA, or RNA (ribonucleic acid). They have also added an individual type of preparation to the avirulent cells. They observed that the inactivation of DNA has prevented the transformation to virulence. This analysis has depicted that the molecular class of DNA has the power of transforming but it could only transform hereditary material. Molecular genetics is used in many cases to refer to a fundamental theory which aligns genes to every life process through polypeptides production.
It is also considered as one of the modest fundamental theory which deals with regulation and expression of genes at the molecular level. Molecular Genetics is also used in investigative approach which can be applied to biomedical science. It is basically an investigative strategy which has its roots in the fundamental theory of genes. Molecular Genetics has been one of the major fields of interests in the field of philosophy. Molecular Genetics is more responsive to being a theory or inclined to theoretical aspect more than laboratory methods or investigative approaches.
From an early philosophical analysis, it could be said that molecular genetics is one of the basic theories which is mainly responsive to expression, makeup, and regulation of genes. Theoretical reductionism has been the major area of its focus. The rising of developmental biology or developmental genetics has made philosophical attention to be drawn towards molecular genetics. The attention has subsequently shifted to fundamental theory with relation to contemporary genetics.
It has been observed that the fundamental theory is not much concerned about regulation, expression, and makeup of genes because it is mainly responsive to the analyses of the general role of genes present in the organisms. The fundamental theory has stated the fact that DNA and genes have the power to direct every life process by initiating information which could specify the functioning and development of organisms. Now, we can say that it is an important question to be answered whether molecular genetics has been a simplified version of classical genetics or not.
It is also very important for us to know whether the concept of genes has been analyzed effectively. The usefulness of genes needs to be outlived. The fundamental theory can be questioned upon its tenability. It has been observed that the philosophical attention has not yet been given on the reasons behind enhanced biological research or the concepts of DNA and genes. These questions are highly important because they ultimately can lead us to a better understanding of the aspect of molecular genetics and its aims. Experts from Assignment Help UK will now help you in explaining the difference between basic and fundamental theories of molecular genetics.
Difference between fundamental and basic theories of Molecular Genetics
There is a basic difference between fundamental theories and basic theories of molecular genetics. According to the modest definition, genes are the linear sequences observed in polypeptides and RNA molecules which are synthesized in the cell. But according to biology, genes have been defined as the fundamental entities which help in the functioning and development of organisms by developing proteins which in turn help in regulating all the cellular processes. The proteins which are produced by the genes are quite significant because they help in controlling and re4gulating important cellular processes.
It is observed that genes are the basic aspect of concern to Molecular Genetics and genes are defined as “the providers” or “the program” or “the blueprint” of the information of an organism. Molecular Genetics believes that genes are the basic carriers or the blueprint or the information or the program with respect to an organism. It is highly important to understand the basic difference between the fundamental theories and basic theories of molecular genetics. The basic role of genes has been differently interpreted and presented by the fundamental and basic theories of molecular genetics. The synthesis of polypeptide and RNA has been considered by the basic theories of Molecular Genetics. On the other hand, the role of genetics has been the main focus of the fundamental theory of Molecular Genetics.
Importance of Molecular Genetics
Molecular genetics is the field of study which focuses on the processes through which biological information gets stored or copied or repaired or decoded so as to create protein and molecules within tissues and cells. It is one of the influential areas of bioscience which contributes to expanding our knowledge and understanding of the domain of Biology in a quite significant manner. It allows us to develop a diagnosis process, treatment, and prevention of various diseases on the basis of their genetic makeup. Furthermore, it can be said that in the domain of Medical Science, the contribution of Molecular Genetics is quite significant because it helps in analyzing and investigating the changes taking place in gene expression or DNA of a patient.
The treatment of a patient could be suggested on the basis of the information about the changes in gene expression or DNA of the patient. With the help of this knowledge, medical professionals can customize treatments to individual patients. Molecular Genetics is one of the thrilling subjects to study. It is all about providing valuable information on the ways our DNA, genome, and genes control all the vital living processes. This field of study unlocks the mystery of DNA and supports us with better knowledge and understanding of human biology in relation to disease and health.
Aims of Molecular Genetics
The field of molecular genetics provides a basic understanding of the principles of enzyme catalysis and bio-energetic. It aims at developing robust knowledge on the molecular architecture of organelles and eukaryotic cells including the study of membrane dynamics and structure. It also throws light on chemical nature, molecular recognition, and dimensional construction of biological macromolecules. The information which we get from the study of molecular genetics helps in developing an understanding of basic dietary requirements of human beings and some of the selected domestic animals. It also helps in understanding the ways DNA is organized in a genome and it is replicated and repaired. The genetic information which is very important for the scientists and biologics get accurately extended by the domain of molecular genetics.
It helps in highlighting the ways genetic information is selectively expressed. It also provides us with information about the functional proteins. The ways genes get transmitted from one generation to another is a domain which is full of mystery. Molecular Genetics aims at simplifying the analysis of genes. Molecular Genetics provides information about the ways genes are transmitted and probable errors which can take place while the process of transmission takes place. Genetic variation can result in mutant genes. It also takes place through the help of natural polymorphism.
These all are inherited genetic errors in the field of Molecular Genetics. It has provided information on the ways these genetic errors take place. Moreover, it is very important for medical professionals and doctors to understand the fact that inherited genetic errors can lead to multi-factorial diseases or single gene-disease. The resultant of this inheritance has different impacts on the population and individuals. Molecular genetics helps in providing ample information on these domains. Now Assignment Experts will show you an infographic:
It can be said that the tools which are used in molecular genetics have certain potential applications to veterinary and Medical Science. The study of molecular genetics aims at providing ample information on those tools which are best suited for these two domains of science. With the progress in medical science, we can find the significance of the study of Molecular Genetics is also getting highly prominent. From the laboratory practice, molecular approach, and its experimental dimension can be understood in relation to Biology.
It is also very important for modern medical professionals and scientists to understand the implications of Molecular Genetics in the field of clinical practice where a molecular approach to biology and Medical Science is highly significant. Furthermore, the ethical aspects of Medical and Molecular science are very important to be understood by medical professionals. The scientist and the biologics become aware of the various ethical aspects and approaches of molecular science with the support of the study of molecular genetics.
The overall study helps the students and practitioners to become capable of demonstrating and understanding the knowledge of the molecular aspects of living cells. It also helps in developing an understanding of the principles governing the structures and participation of macromolecules in molecular recognition. It also helps in demonstrating and understanding the knowledge of the fundamental mechanism and principles of molecular signalling and metabolic control. In case you want help on any other topics for your assignments you can check with Global Assignment Help.