Genetic Code

Genetic Code: DNA and RNA with genetic information

Genetic Code

Genetic code can be defined as the set of rules which are used by any living cells in translating information into proteins. The information which the genetic code or particular set of rules are used is included within mRNA or DNA sequences. The information which is encoded within any genetic materials is done by the use of genetic code. The translation from information about genetic materials to proteins is conducted by the ribosome.  Ribosome links amino acids in a specified order by messenger RNA or mRNA. This link is established using transfer RNA molecules which help in carrying amino acids and reading three nucleotides of mRNA once at a time.

The genetic code is quite similar in every organism and it helps express the information which can be presented in a simple tabular form where we can find 64 entries. Genetic code defines the ways the nucleotides triplets or codons indicate the type of amino acid to be added in the next protein synthesis. There are certain exceptions. A three-nucleoside codon present in a nucleic acid sequence indicates only a single amino acid. Most of the genes get encoded by using a single scheme which is often known as standard genetic code or Canonical genetic code or simply referred to as the genetic code. Variant codes are also present in human mitochondria. Genetic code helps in determining the sequence of amino acid of proteins.

Genomic regions help in determining where and when these proteins would be produced as per different gene regulatory codes.  The process of encoding proteins initiated after the discovery of DNA structure which had taken place in 1953. George Gamow had postulated three-bases sets which should be employed encoding 20 standard amino acids which are used in building proteins by living cells.

Efforts have always been given to understand the working of DNA. The attempts have been initiated since the very beginning of time. We can certainly say that people have noticed similar features among the members of a family and have also observed the patterns of similarities. We used to say that the daughter has got the same glorious curly hair like that of her mother. When people are wondering these kinds of similarities, they are thinking about DNA of which they are not aware of.

The farmers must have noticed that there are certain particular characteristics in livestock. For example, selectively bred sheep are found to have gloriously fine and curly wool. The farmers used to pick and cultivate sweet red apples which are found to be growing wild. The farmers also do not choose woody tart green apples. All these decisions have their roots in the study of DNA. Everyone can sense that there is an unseen inheritance which governs every living thing and organism. There are several theories which have helped in understanding the functioning of genes. With time, these models and theories have been reformed and refined to what we refer to as genetics.

Coincidentally, the main model of genetic inheritance has been described somewhere in the middle of 1800s. During the same time, DNA has also been described as a compound but DNA and genetic inheritance were not linked directly to each other for almost 10 decades. Experiments have been conducted which have revealed the fact that DNA is that molecule which is responsible for inheritance and this finding has been revealed between 1940 and 1950. After this, a double helix structure has been discovered and became highly popular.

So it is important to understand what is DNA.  In a simplified version, we can say that DNA is that molecule which holds information which represents the fact why biological children inherit similar characteristics like that of their parents or ancestors. These characteristic features of genetic inheritance are not only common in human beings but also other species. Even, in the case of the blue whale, we can find similar features to be passing on from parents to their biological offspring. DNA plays a significant role in describing physical features, behavioural8 traits, disease, and even dietary consideration. The dietary considerations which are inherited through DNA can include sensitivity to sugar on lactose, etc.

Genetic code helps in understanding DNA in a simplified manner because it provides information with the help of some building blocks which are known as nucleotides. A nucleotide can be defined as a lump of sugar which is found along with a nitrogenous base and phosphate group. The phosphate and sugar get linked with other nucleotides below and above in a form of a scaffold of bases which form a single DNA strand. This is the reason why a picture of DNA is found to be in the shape of a scaffold or ladder. It is an effective way to portray the basic construction of DNA.

Double strands of DNA combined with the support of sugar-phosphate scaffold on either side keeping the nitrogenous base in the middle depicts an exact picture of the scaffold. The bases are found to be having unique features or characteristics and because of these characteristics seek for co-dependence. The bases hang out with other bases and combined they built an inseparable pair.

These bases are found to be of four types such as adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine. Adenine is always found to be with thymine. On the other hand, cytosine is always found with guanine. If adenine is seen to be together with cytosine, then there can be different trouble and concern. The bases from one side reach across the other side to build base pairs. Despite their selectiveness about who they want to bond with, the bases fundamentally make the entire strand together. Double-stranded DNA is formed with the rungs in place. The picture gets completed when we can imagine a spiral ladder to be rising. This spiral is the helix which is used for DNA there are two spirals on each side of the scaffold. The shape of the double helix is formed because of two spirals on either type of the DNA ladder. Now our experts from My Assignment Help will tell you about the battlefield of Genetic Code.

Genetic Code as a battlefield

There is a constant Battle of the genetic codes. Several microbes use genetic codes alternatively which are different from that of the standard genetic code. The standard genetic code fundamentally governs the major portion of life. A census of the recorded genomes has been reported in one of the science journals around 2014. The number of microbial species with tallies of decoded genomes is nearly 0.044% of the entire count. Remaining part of the story has remained investigated.

The findings have put a great challenge to the assuming fact that similar genetic code is present in a virus and its host. The discovery reveals the fact that genetic code can be considered as a battlefield where host and pathogen clash with each other. Viruses do not have biological machinery which is responsible for self-replication. Viruses infiltrate host cells and hijack the machinery of the host cells so that they can use the resources of the host to develop a new virus.

The genome of the virus is made up of RNA or nucleic acids DNA. This feature is commonly found in every genome. The set of rules or instructions is present in a genome which is needed to produce a mass virus. The host cell develops viral proteins by translating the nucleic acid genome in a very similar way in which mRNA gets translated and transcribed from their genes. The genetic code is a table which the biologics and cells use to translate nucleic acid language into protein language. The 20mino acids are encoded by using assemble proteins.

The 64 triplets of DNA bases is relied upon by the cells. The triplets of bases are known as codons. The amino acid specifies each codon quite uniquely. Three proteins out of 64 codons are kept reserved to give the signal of a protein chain end. The 61 codons which mainly encoding amino acids get recognized by molecules of RNA which are known as tRNAs. These molecules act as molecular translators between protein languages and the nucleic acid. The stop codons are recognised by release factors which are proteins. These release factor proteins have a peculiar resemblance to that of the shapes of tRNAs. The stop codons can get specifically recognised by release factor proteins resembling the shape of tRNAs. Instant Assignment Help will not tell you about the genes.

Genes in making an individual or a living organism

Gene code makes amino acids to translate it to a protein for muscle fibre which is not only thick and quick to contract but can also tire faster. Amino acids then get assembled with the support of RNA. There are nearly 20000 genes which code human protein and instruct amino acid arrangements for the proteins creating traits. The outcome of this complex undertaking is the reason behind the formation of several characteristics and features in a living organism. The chromosome has many genes which are collectively known as the genome. It is also interesting to know that 2% of the general is made up of protein-coding genes. The percentage of protein-coding genes in the genome is quite small but highly significant as it contains all sprinter gene, lactose sensitivity, curly hair, predisposition to particular diseases, etc. This small protein-coding gene content of the genome is called exome. There is another nearly 7 to 8% which is functional but does not help in coding for the protein. The human genome has been still a matter of concern.

The uniqueness in an individual or an organism gets developed from double helixes. In understanding this, knowledge of chromosomes and DNA is very important. The continuous double strand of the DNA is known as a chromosome. In a human body, there are 23 pairs of chromosomes or 46 chromosomes. The number of chromosomes in the human body is arbitrary. A pigeon has 80 chromosomes while there are 48 chromosomes in a potato. Viscacha is a plant which has 112 chromosomes. Humans receive only half of the chromosomes of their parents, 23 chromosomes from mothers and rest 23 chromosomes from father. The 22 pairs out of these 23 pairs of chromosomes are found to be common in both men and women. The 23rd chromosome helps in determining the gender which is represented by x and y chromosomes.

When we are discussing genetic code, we are explaining the translation of some information or set of rules expressed as the base sequence. In a DNA, genes are found in particular sections which help in coding and can be inherited from the parents of the living organisms. But it is also an important fact to know that genes do not get build-up on your own. They are only responsible for the outcome and they are more significant with a supervisory role to play. The amino acids are the real workers and genes only instruct the amino acids to get arranged and for complicated groupings which are known as proteins. The shape of such groupings along with the types of amino acids which have made the groupings to determine the functional aspect of the protein and also indicate the type of cell it is going to create.

Genetic Code in coding passwords

It is quite interesting to know that genetic code can be used for passwords. If a new service or device needs a password, genetic code can be used. Amino acids and messenger RNA triplets provide endless possibilities for generating passwords. Generally, the passwords need alphanumeric digits in certain numbers and it should be highly protected and confidential. The genetic code sometimes seems to be gibberish to any normal individual but the biologists understand the true importance of genetic code. The genetic code can be considered as the correspondence lying between the 61 types of mRNA triplets and the 20 types of amino acids.

The 61 types of mRNA triplets or codons which represent DNA, specify the 20 types of amino acids. These codons indicate the same amino acids in every organism. The mRNAs of hydra, humans, hydrogen, hippos, viruses, and Haemophilus influenza follow similar rules. The universality in the fact that bacterial cells help in manufacturing human proteins and bacterial insecticides are developed in corn and tobacco cells help in making Ebola vaccine lies in the understanding of genetic code. In a case that you need more information related to your academic course and exams, you can also check with Do My Assignment.